(18) it from the other two, I have called political; inasmuch as it exifts only in respect to the government, and not to the individuals of the two countries. Of this is not our business to speak, at present. II. Civil liberty being no other than natural liberty to far restrained by human laws, and no father, as is necessary and expedient for the general advantage of the public, * whenever that liberty is, by the law of the state, further restrained than is necessary and expedient for the general advantage, a state of civil slavery commences immediately: this may affect the whole society, and every description of persons in it, and yet the constitution of the fate be perfectly free. and this happens whenever the laws of a state respect the form, or energy of the government, more than the happiness of the citizen; as in Venice, where the most oppressive species of civil slavery exists, extending to every individual in the state, from the poorest gondolier to the members of the senate, and the doge himself. This species of slavery also exists when=ever is an inequality of rights, or privileges, between the subjects or citizens of the fame state, expect such as necessarily result from the exercise of the pub-